Iontophoresis

  • Iontophoresis is the active transdermal delivery of soluble drug ions.
  • Iontophoresis uses a direct current (DC) to move charged drug ions into the skin.
  • Iontophoresis is the alternative to hypodermic injections.

LOCAL DRUG ADMINISTRATION

  • No systemic side effects
  • Undetectable systemic blood concentrations (Smutok et al., 2002)
  • Diffused local drug administration — no multiple hypodermic punctures or tunneling to increase injected area (ideal for drug deposition around inflamed tendons and into joints)
  • Non-invasive — no needles (ideal for pediatrics and needle-adverse adults)
  • The dosage of drug delivered is given by the amount of charge moved around the circuit.
  • The iontophoretic dose is determined by the amount of current (Amperes or Amps) over a period of time (minutes). Thus, the unit dose is Amp*minutes.
  • For a positively-charged drug, the active electrode must be made the Anode (+). Like charges repel. The positive (+) lead is connected to the active electrode.
  • For a negatively-charged drug, the active electrode must be made the Cathode (-). The negative (-) lead is connected to the active electrode.