Scientific Evidence

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Banta C.A, A Prospective, Nonrandomized Study of Iontophoresis, Wrist Splinting, and Anti-inflammatory Medication in the Treatment of Early-Mild Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. JOM 1994;Vol 36,No 2;166-168.

Bertolucci,L.E. Introduction of Anti-inflammatory Drugs by Iontophoresis: Double Blind Study. J Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy.1982;4:103-108.

Delacerda FG. A Comparative Study of Three methods of Treatment for Shoulder Girdle Myofascial Syndrome. J Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy.1982;4:51-54.

Glass JM, The Quality and Distribution of Radiolabeled Dexamethasone Delivered Tissues by Iontophoresis. Int. J Dermatology. 1980;19:519-525.

Gudeman SD et. Al. Treatment of Plantar Fascitis by Iontophoresis of 0.4% Dexamethasone. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Am J of Sprts Med. 1997; 25:3, 312-316.

Harris PR. Iontophoresis: Clinical Research in Musculoskeletal Inflammatory Conditions. J Ortho Spts PT. 1982;4:109-112.

Hasson SM. et. al. Effect of Iontophoretically Delivered Dexamethasone on Muscle Performance in a Rheumatoid Arthritic Joint. Arthritis Care & Research. 1988;1:177-182.

Hasson SM. et. al. Exercise Training and Dexamethasone Iontophoresis in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Study. Physiotherapy Can. 1991;43:11-29.

Hartley, A. 1990 Practical joint assessment, Mosby year book, St. Louis Hopenfield, S. 1976. Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Japour, C et. al. Management of Heel Pain Syndrome with Acetic Acid Iontophoresis. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. May 1999. Vol 89, No. 5;251-257.

Kahn J. Acetic Acid Iontophoresis for Calcium Deposits. Phys Ther 1977;57:658-659.

Kahn J. Use of Iontophoresis in Peyronie’s Disease. Phy Ther 1982;Vol 62, No. 7;995-996.

Lark MR, Gangarosa LP. Iontophoresis: An Effective Modality for the Treatment of Inflammatory Disorders of the Temporalmandibular Joint and Myofascial Pain. J Craniomand Prac 1990;8(2):108-119.

Langley PL. Iontophoresis to Aid in Releasing Tendon Adhesions: Suggestions from the Field. Phys Ther. 1984;64:1395.

Li L Scudds, RA et. al. The Efficacy of Dexamethasone Iontophoresis for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritic Knees: A Pilot Study. Arthritis Care and Research. 1996 Vol 9, No 2: 126-132.

Neeter C, Thomee R, Silbernagel KG, Thomee P, Karlsson J. Sportrehab-Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine Clinic, Goteborg, Sweden.

Nirschl et al, studied the effects of iontophoretic administration of DEX in controlling pain in patients with medial or lateral elbow epicondylitis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 31:189-195 (2003) American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

Pellichia GL et. al. Treatment of Infrapatellar Tendonitis: A Combination of Modalities and Transverse Friction Massage Versus Iontophoresis. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 1994. 3;135-145.

Petelenz TJ et. al. Iontophoresis of Dexamethasone: Laboratory Studies. J Controlled Release.1992;20;55-66.

Psaki et. at. Acetic Acid Ionization: A Study to Determine the Absorptive Effects Upon Calcified Tendonitis of the Shoulder. Phy. Therapy Review. Vol. 35, No. 2:84-87.

Puttemans FJM et. al. Iontophoresis: Mechanism of Action Studied by Potentiometry and X-Ray Fluorescence. Arch. Phys Med Rehabil. 1982;63:176-180.

Scudds RA. Et. al. Iontophoresis: An Overview of the Mechanism and Clinical Application. Am Coll Rheumatology. 1995;8:51-61.

Sreerekha; Rai R, Shanmuga SV; Karthick; Prabhu S, Srinivas CR, Mathew AC.Deparments of Dermatology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore – 641 004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Tannenbaum M. Iodine Iontophoresis in Reduction of Scar Tissue. Phys Ther. 1980;60:792.

Weider DL. Treatment of Traumatic Myositis Ossificans with Acetic Acid Iontophoresis. Phys Ther 1992;72:133-137.

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